Does sex effect aggressive driving in college students
In addition, they found an interaction between daily BAC and average BAC such that vulnerability increased as individuals increased their level of intoxication above their average level of intoxication. Prior prospective studies that have analyzed all types of sexual victimization together have tended to find that only prior victimization emerges as a predictor of later victimization e. We conclude by discussing the applicability of existing substance prevention programs for addressing sexual victimization. Humphrey and White find a declining annual incidence of completed rape across college, from 6. Stronger effects on these outcomes were observed at colleges with a higher percentage of students who completed the course. In both the entire sample and among students who reported alcohol use at baseline, those assigned to the intervention group reported participation in fewer drinking games at follow-up but were more likely to report unsafe sexual practices. Our review of the literature on women's substance use and sexual victimization points to the conclusion that women's alcohol consumption plays a significant role in a large proportion of sexual assault incidents among young women, particularly college students.
For example, two studies of college students found that women's drinking was associated with experiencing alcohol consumption-related sexual victimization, as would be expected, but not with experiencing sexual victimization resulting from force or verbal coercion Marx, Nichols-Anderson, Messman-Moore, Miranda, and Porter, ; Tyler, Hoyt, and Whitbeck, Because of time constraints, it was not possible to use baseline student-survey data for pre-stratification purposes. Although these studies have not considered sexual victimization as an outcome, there is evidence that the effects of broad-based preventive interventions can extend beyond the initially targeted behaviors to reduce other risky behaviors e. Thus, questions remain about their potential for reducing student alcohol misuse and related consequences. Toxicology studies involve testing for the presence of alcohol and drugs in the urine of rape victims when there was a suspicion that drugs had been used. Because response rates were less than optimal, nonresponse weights were created to reduce the possibility of sample bias that could result from over- or under-representation of several demographic subgroups. By definition, all of the incapacitated rapes involved victim substance use Alcohol consumption among adolescents tends to be lower than among college-aged women in general Newes-Adeyi, Chen, Williams, and Faden, This widely used, item, behaviorally specific measure was designed to capture the full range of unwanted sexual experiences without requiring the victim to label her experiences as rape. Prior prospective studies that have analyzed all types of sexual victimization together have tended to find that only prior victimization emerges as a predictor of later victimization e. According to the Alcohol Myopia model Steele and Southwick, , in situations of high conflict, drinking makes inhibiting cues e. Students may view their exam scores and then review the correct answers to the questions that they missed. However, HED was also associated with other types of sexual victimization, perhaps reflecting an indirect mechanism whereby heavier drinkers tend to socialize with more sexually aggressive men, for example, via the Greek system Copenhaver and Grauerholz, Because our literature review did not support a proximal role of victim drug use in sexual victimization among general or college populations, we have not advocated for drug prevention as a means of reducing sexual victimization. Module 4 consists of a course review and an examination. Colleges eligible to participate in the study had never implemented AlcoholEdu or any other type of online alcohol prevention program designed for all incoming freshmen, and officials expressed willingness for their colleges to be randomly assigned to an intervention or control condition in the first year of the study. In a second study, Lovecchio and colleagues also used a randomized controlled trial to examine the short-term effects of AlcoholEdu for College in a sample of all incoming freshmen, irrespective of baseline drinking status. Parks, Romosz, Bradizza, and Hsieh found that it was women who escalated their drinking from high school to college who were at increased risk of sexual victimization in their first year. Sexual victimization is a heterogeneous phenomenon that may encompass verbally coerced intercourse from an intimate, incapacitated rape at a fraternity party, or violent rape by an acquaintance or a date. We are currently finding a similar pattern of results in a recently completed study of approximately first year college students. However, findings cannot rule out the possibility that a perpetrator may find it easier to administer drugs or to encourage additional consumption once the woman is already intoxicated. Module 2 challenges students with regard to their perceptions of campus drinking norms and their knowledge of alcohol's effects on the brain and body, and it includes a discussion about blood alcohol concentration and a blood alcohol concentration calculator exercise. In our recent study of first year college women we find a nearly identical proportion: Recognizing that entry into college is associated with increased HED, many colleges have mandated that all entering freshmen complete an educationally focused program e. Based on the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index White and Labouvie, and additional questions about student alcohol problems included in a recent multicampus trial Saltz et al.
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